As well as being at the junction of four biogeographical regions Egypt lies on one of the world’s major flyways for migratory birds. More than 470 species have been recorded in Egypt of which only 150 can be considered resident breeders. One species, the White-eyed Gull, is endemic to the Red Sea.
The wetlands on the Mediterranean coast are important habitats for migrating water fowl while Suez is one of the most important bottlenecks in the world for soaring birds. In autumn 1981, 134,000 birds of prey were counted there. There are also huge numbers of White Storks, Common Cranes and White Pelicans that pass annually through this area.
The wetlands of Egypt are divided between the wetlands of the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts and the inland wetlands of the Nile Valley and several oases. They are habitat for a variety of water birds. Along the coasts, the predominant birds include, Greater Flamingo, Osprey, terns and gulls.
Even in the driest areas, various small birds can be found, among them the ubiquitous White-crowned Black Wheatear and the Lanner Falcon.