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Egypt has a rich and diverse wildlife that reflects the country’s unique position at the junction of three major zoogeographic zones, with species from each of these geographic realms represented. Mediterranean and Saharo-Sindian species form the largest component, with small numbers of Irano-Turanian and Afrotropical species that remain from past wetter ages. The wide range of ecosystems also influences diversity. Only a few species are endemic to Egypt, but a number are restricted to Egypt and neighboring countries.

Egyptians have utilized wildlife resources since ancient times. No other culture has left behind such detailed documentation of its wildlife. From prehistoric times there are rock drawings, while from Pharaonic times there are wall paintings, relieves and mummified animals. The records show wild animals being hunted for food and sport, kept as pets and worshiped as gods. The Ancient Egyptians understood and appreciated the animals that were integral to their culture and way of life.

Egypt lies at the junction of four biogeographical region.